CLIMATE CHANGE

The biomass pellets as a means to address climate change

leaf Tackling climate change is undoubtedly one of the greatest challenges we have to cover the energy utilization of biomass systems.
The dependence of the economy on fossil fuels and huge consumption for power generation, has been characterized by scientists and politicians as the basic factor for the worsening of the phenomenon of global warming, with all the known consequences (global average sea level, extreme weather events, etc.).
The neutrality of pellets to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) does not follow from the fact that they emit in burning this gas • this is impossible for any burning compound containing carbon. The friendliness of pellets for the environment resulting from the fact that their production of natural raw materials used (eg logging residues, sawdust, special crops) that their development absorb about the same amount of carbon dioxide as much as that emit when burnt. Consequently, the overall carbon dioxide balance in the air transport is roughly zero. Of course, there are several parameters to be taken into account for a tighter carbon balance calculations, such as the performance of the combustion system of pellets or energy consumption of the production units of such biofuels.
Several studies have been carried out throughout Europe during the last decade in order to clarify whether indeed the biomass pellets are fuel friendly to the environment than conventional fossil fuels. In a study of the state Department of Trade and Industry of Great. Britain (2003) which examined the carbon dioxide emissions of various fuels in the whole spectrum of life, it was found that per megawatt hour (MWh), the biomass pellets produce less than 5% of the corresponding emissions from petroleum. In comparison, not with natural gas (which "advertised" clean fuel), the same scientists have estimated that emissions of carbon dioxide from the pellets account for only 5.5%. Anyway, both oil and gas are, by definition, non-renewable fuels, in contrast to the biomass, also by definition, is a renewable fuel. The famous Environmental Protection Agency, USA (USEPA) refers to pellets wood as a renewable fuel made from compressed and dry wood or other biomass sources. It adds that the stoves using biomass pellets pollute so little that it is not necessary certification from the USEPA. (as is done with conventional wood stoves).
Special Austrian Institute for Urbanization and Residence (Salzburger Institute for Urbanization and Housing) reported as a result of an investigation that an average household in Austria using pellets instead of oil for heating help protect the environment by reducing by 10 tonnes the quantity of carbon dioxide which emits annually.
The direct link between the use of pellets and environmental protection demonstrated in practice by the fact that the largest pellet consumption in countries and economically advanced and environmentally sensitive. These projecting, Sweden, the country with the highest consumption of biomass pellets in Europe, which, in fact, use more biomass fuel in 2009 to cover its energy needs. Global examples from formal, reputable institutions and studies that demonstrate the contribution of biomass pellets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is too many. Carbon dioxide is not, however, the only product of combustion gas of concern.
Between the period 1980-2000 there was a sharp drop of emitted quantities of carbon monoxide (CO) from residential combustion systems • pellets which can be attributed to technological development of these systems. Similarly particulate matter (PM10) are also an important pollutant of the combustion of solid fuels. Similarly to the case of the carbon monoxide is so rapid developments in technology of combustion systems pellets to have achieved a reduction in the emitted particles of the order of 1% over twenty years. It is worth noting that for PM10 emissions from burning pellets is less than 5% of those released from conventional fireplaces with firewood.